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Emission Measurement Services

  • Instrumental Analysis
  • Particulate and Wet Chemistry Analysis

    Instrumental Analysis

    Overview

    Sanders Engineering has four mobile laboratories equipped with:

    • redundant monitors for the criteria pollutants
      • carbon monoxide
      • nitrogen oxides
      • sulfur dioxide
    • gas chromatographs equipped with flame photometric detectors (FPD) for the measurement of sulfur compounds
    • flame ionization detectors (FID) and thermal conductivity detectors (TCD) for the measurement of organic compounds
    • FTIR

    Each of the mobile laboratories is equipped with a computerized data acquisition system for monitoring and recording of emission data.  The system is capable of displaying multiple emission characteristics simultaneously on a real time basis.  All of the emissions test results and calculations measured by instrumentation are available on-site.

    Commonly Requested Gaseous Pollutants

    Sanders Engineering's four mobile laboratories have the ability to test for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, total reduced sulfur, volatile organic compounds, and oxygen.  We possess the ability to test multiple sources, or inlets and outlets, simultaneously in order to calculate control device efficiency.  Each of the mobile laboratories is capable of mobilizing with a minimal notice.

    Link to methods (3a, 6c, 7e, 10, 15, 16, 16c and 25a)

  • Online Gas Chromatography

    Sanders Engineering's state-of-the-art mobile laboratories have the ability to test multiple gas streams simultaneously for compounds that are primarily only tested for in laboratory settings.  Our gas chromatographs are equipped with multiple detectors to meet any testing scenario.  We specialize in on-line BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene), TRS (total reduced sulfurs-hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and methyl mercaptan), and C1-C6+ (methane, ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and hexanes +).  In almost all of the units we have tested for VOC’s we have found that over 50% and many times as much as 98%, of the emissions were in fact methane and ethane.  These compounds are actually exempt from VOC reporting and therefore should be removed.  This is primarily due to the fact that the analyzers used for this method include methane and ethane in their output.  We use on-line chromatography to separate methane and ethane from the other VOC compounds and then subtract their concentration from the total VOC (25a concentration) to produce the actual VOC concentration.  By using this method which we developed, and is universally accepted, you can reduce your emissions by simply using the correct analytical technique.

    Picture of chromatogram showing methane/ethane separation

  • FTIR

    Sanders Engineering's FTIR allows the ability to continuously measure for multiple gaseous compounds simultaneously on a real time basis.  The instrument displays real time data for each parameter which is being analyzed.  The principle of operation allows the on-site analysis of many compounds which would normally have to be collected and analyzed by a different more time consuming technique.  The real time results allow for process changes to be made and their effect on the unit monitored.  The FTIR is very useful in determining concentrations of  hydrochloric acid (HCL) at Portland Cement facilities, ammonia (NH3) slip at coal fired power generation units equipped with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) control devices, formaldehyde emissions from gas fired engines, and many other varied units and facilities. 

    Methods 320, 321

    Relative Accuracy Test Audits (RATA’s) and Cylinder Gas Audits

    Sanders Engineering routinely performs Relative Accuracy Test Audits (RATA’s) for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) for Power Generation, Pulp and Paper, Oil and Gas Refineries, and many other facilities.  We are NELAC certified to perform both EPA 40 CFR part 60 RATA’s and part 75 RATAs and linearity checks (EPA Methods 3a, 6c, 7e, 10, 15, 16, 16a, and 16b)  These test methods are those corresponding to  Performance Specifications 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8911, 12A and 12B

    Sanders Engineering maintains an extensive inventory of various concentration EPA protocol 1 gas cylinders used in quarterly Cylinder Gas Audits (CGA’s) and linearity checks.  A partial list of the cylinder inventory includes oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and propane.

    Particulate and Wet Chemistry Analysis

    Particulate Emissions Testing

    The EPA defines particulate matter as a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. Particle pollution is made up of a number of components, including acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles.

    Sanders Engineering has specialized in particulate emissions testing for over 30 years.  For the past twenty-eight years Sanders Engineering has performed annual particulate compliance testing for all coal fired electric power generating units operated by Alabama Power Company at each facility throughout the state of Alabama. (EPA Methods 5 and 17)  For the past eighteen years Sanders Engineering has performed annual particulate and flow rate Relative Accuracy Test Audits (RATA) compliance testing for all coal fired electric power generating units operated by Gulf Power Company at each facility throughout the state of Florida. (EPA Methods 5 and 17)

    Link to particulate methods (5, 5a-5i, 17, and 202)

    Particle Sizing and PM 10 and 2.5

    In addition to particulate emissions testing Sanders Engineering has the ability to conduct particle size distribution analysis under both high grain loading (inlet) and low grain loading (outlet) conditions.  Sanders Engineering has a Anderson in-stack cascade impactor which has 8 stage separation capability.  The particle sizer aerodynamically separates particles into multiple size ranges taking into account there size, shape, and density.  The results from the particle sizing analysis can help determine the efficiency of the control device in place.

    Sanders Engineering also has the ability to conduct PM10 and PM2.5 particulate emissions testing.  Our three stage cyclone particle sizer is used to separate particles into those that are 2.5 microns and smaller, particles between 2.5 and 10 microns, and particles greater than 10 microns. 

    Link to methods (201, 201a)

    List of all wet methods NELAC certified to perform

    Metals Emission Testing and Analysis

    Sanders Engineering not only has the capability to perform metals sampling using EPA Method 29 and mercury sampling using ASTM 6784-02 (Ontario Hydro Method), but also can perform sampling and analysis using EPA Method 30B.  These analyses can be performed in our laboratory or on-site using the Ohio Lumex RA915M analyzer.  This gives our clients the ability to see in near real-time results for RATA testing or process optimization studies.

    Link to methods (29, 30B)

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